A worker bound by a voluntary agreement to work for a specified period of years often in return for free passage to an overseas destination. road work and military service. Sexual exploitation of female serfs by their lords was common. Before 1492, the Americas were isolated from Africa, Europe, and Asia. Feudalism was a social, economic, and political system that was prevalent in Europe during the Middle Ages. Europeans wanted slaves, and this led to the Atlantic Slave Trade. By 1450, more people were migrating in search of religious tolerance and economic opportunities. favor. Unit: 1450 - 1750 Renaissance and Reformation. China Late Imperial China: The Ming (1368-1644) and the Qing (1644-1912) . Although the world's productive systems continued to be heavily centered on agricultural production throughout this period, major changes occurred in agricultural labor, the systems and locations of manufacturing, gender and social structures, and environmental processes. The Atlantic System c. The Middle Passage d. The Sea Road AP WORLD HISTORY ULTIMATE REVIEW PACKET UNIT 4 (1450-1750) rebellions A type of labor commonly used in feudal systems in which the laborers work the land in return for protection but they are bound to the land and are not allowed to leave or to peruse their a new occupation. As a result, practices of polygamy were more common. This was an extreme case of class mobility, but is an example of what was possible. Evidence of the continued influence of Asian traders included the following: Asian states could limit the access of European merchants to their economies. Although mixed children existed, primarily because of forced assaults, the societal norm was segregation and policies supported this tradition. Individual serfs and serf families were regularly sold, with and without land, in the early nineteenth century. As a result many Incans movd away to In India, the powerful merchant Virji Vora (c. 1590 c. the 1670s) held a monopoly over several goods, including certain spices. On the backs of millions of slaves, sugar eventually outpaced silver as the most profitable good at the time. Recommend what the business should do to ensure adherence to principles of internal control. Abolishment of the slave trade and use of slaves in the 19th century led to a need for new cheap sources of labor and hence changes in migration. For example, the Kongo was in decline. Spanish and Portuguese Empires. Safavid Empire, Ottoman Empire, Japan, Russia, and the Mughal Empire. The population was increasing and this led to more demand for resources. Slave Systems and Slave Trade. Newly developed colonial economies in the Americas largely depended on agriculture, utilized existing labor systems, including the Incan mita, and introduced new labor systems including chattel slavery, indentured servitude, and encomienda and hacienda systems. In the Americas, Indigenous groups rebelled against European conquest. Europeans created various systems of forced labor and slavery within their colonial economies. Prepare the appropriate journal entries on December 31, 2016. Repblica de Indios were required to supply labor through the mita system to American silver mines. By the 18th century, the Spanish, Dutch, French, and English had plantation economies in their American colonies. Not "intended" to be slave system, but essentially was. Economic systems were disrupted as trade intensified. Africans were kidnapped, often with the help of local rulers, and brought to the New World. Possible Answers: Latisha Tally is the company's computer specialist and oversees its computerized payroll system. commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India. These groups included, Hunting, gathering, and small-scale agriculture, Agriculture for profit became increasingly important, Not connected to commerce in Afro-Eurasia, Comparing the American Economy Before and After the Arrival of Europeans, Video: Indentured servitude in the Americas, Unit 6: Consequences of Industrialization, 1.1B: Chinas Cultural Influence on its Neighbors, 1.2E: Governance Across the Islamic World, 1.2F: Technology and Innovation in the Islamic World, 1.3G: Cultural Developments in South and Southeast Asia, 1.3H: Governance in South and Southeast Asia, 1.6M: Agriculture and European Social Organization, 2.2B: The Rise of the Mongols and the Mongol Empire, 2.2C: The Mongols and Eurasian Trade and Communication, 2.2D: The Mongols and and Technological and Cultural Transfer, 2.3 E: The Causes of Indian Ocean Commerce, 2.3 F: The Effects of Indian Ocean Commerce, 2.3 G Indian Ocean Trade and the Monsoon Winds, 2.4 I: West African Empires and Trans-Saharan Trade, 2.5J: Cultural Consequences of Connectivity, 2.6K: Environmental Consequences of Connectivity, 3.2B: Empires Expand: Weapons and State Rivalries, 4.2B: State Support for Maritime Expansion, 4.2C: Economic Causes and Effects of European Maritime Exploration, 4.4.F: Continuities and Changes in Economic and Labor Systems, 4.4.G: Changes and Continuities in Slavery, 4.5H: Rulers Economic Strategies to Consolidate and Maintain Power, 4.5I: Continuities and Changes in Networks of Exchange, 4.5J: Changing Social Structures from 1450 to 1750, 4.5K: Expansion and Change in Existing Religions, 5.1B The Enlightenment and Movements of Liberation, 5.6G: The Governments Role in Industrialization, 5.7H: Economic Innovations and Developments in the Industrial Age, 5.8I: Reforms and modernization in Japan, China, and the Ottoman Empire, 6.2B: Japanese, Russian, and American Imperialism, 6.3C: Indigenous Responses to State Expansion, 6.4D: Global Economic Developments from 1750 to 1900, 6.5E: Economic Imperialism from 1750 to 1900, 6.6F & G: Environmental and Economic Causes of Migration, 8.1A: Setting the Stage for the Cold War and Decolonization. Swift Ellis, Inc., manufactures running shoes. Label this combination point B. Profitable production demanded significant labor resources. Their first significant cash crop was sugar cane, which they learned to grow from contact with Muslims in the Mediterranean region during the Crusades. In AP World History: Modern, Unit 4 spans from 1450 CE to 1750 CE and accounts for 12-15% of the material on the exam. The languages of Spanish and Portuguese became the dominant languages of the region. 1450-1750. AverageHiringCost,PerHire,ByCategory. Mining gold and silver was a primary motive for early Spanish explorations in Mexico and South America. The last country to officially abolish slavery was Mauritania in 1981.Nevertheless, there are an estimated 40.3 million people worldwide subject to some form of modern slavery. The system was meant to curb exploitation but actually made the exploitation of Native Americans worse. role/purpose transformed in to a coercive labor system. Learn. The days' sales in inventory ratio is calculated by dividing cost of goods sold by the average merchandise Cash crop agriculture and ranching were common on haciendas, but other activities like mining also took place. Labor/Economic System. Labor systems grew and changed in response to the demand for labor and goods, Spanish settlers in the Caribbean set up the encomienda system, a form of forced labor, in which Spaniards demanded labor from conquered Native inhabitants, Favored Spanish immigrants to the New World forced Native Americans to work in mines, landed estates, and public works, Due to the brutality of this system, Spanish officials changed it to the repartimiento system, in which Natives were forced to provide labor for Spanish projects, but for a limited amount of time for which they were compensated, Ultimately this system was unsustainable, which led Europeans to develop the slave trade, Europeans adapted and expanded the African slave trade, using Africans to work in forced labor in the New World, By the 1500s, when Portugal began exploring the west coast of Africa, tribes had already been engaged in slave trade for hundreds of years, African tribes kidnapped members of other tribes and sold them into slavery to Europeans, who shipped them to the Americas on the deadly Middle Passage, Most slaves were sent to the Caribbean to replace other slaves who died under the brutal conditions; a comparably small amount of slaves was sent to North and South America, Slaves were put to work growing cash crops (sugar, tobacco, cotton, and coffee), the profits of which ultimately benefited European powers, Europeans then sold manufactured goods such as guns to African tribes offering slaves, and the trade began again, The collapse of major empires could lead European powers to establish hierarchical labor systems in which peasants were bound to provide labor, Following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Russia developed a system of serfdom to maintain the wealth of the small nobility and monarchy; serfs, or peasants, were forced to work on large estates, Serfs typically lived together in communes, which provided extended kin networks to help workers survive under harsh conditions, In 1649, the Russian government legally bound serfs to nobles and the tsar, or king. European indentured servants continued coming to the Americas until the late 18. The Spanish also established a fort at St. Augustine in present-day Florida. to which they were attached. In New Mexico, the encomienda system granted elite Spanish settlers far greater rights in the labor of Pueblo villagers, but the Pueblos retained crucial legal rights. This system was developed to allow serfs Despite pre-existing Christian views that appose slavery, because of Spains and Great Britians adoption/creation of new slave systems, such as the Mita and Chattel systems, and continuation of pre-existing systems, such as the use of African women as European household workers, European states intensified their use of slavery. The alliance between European indentured servants and enslaved Africans during the rebellion disturbed the ruling class, who subsequently passed laws to harden Virginia's racial caste system dividing free and indentured whites from enslaved blacks. Economic systems include what types of goods societies produce, how they produce them, and how wealth and resources and wealth are across the population. general European conquest resulted in new economic systems and production methods in the Americas that produced products for commercial exchange through regional and international trade. 1450-1750 indentured servants were often of European descent (migration from Europe to the New World) however they were replaced . Syncretisms happen everywhere, but in the Americas there are quite a few examples. government intervened in the market to protect domestic industries, companies organized commercial ventures by allowing investors to buy and sell shares which shared the risk of business ventures. They increased with the rise in global demand for raw materials. However, vulnerable populations like the poor sometimes found themselves coerced into signing the contracts. slavery was officially and effectively ended in In 1685, the Catholic King James II ascended to the throne and began enacting anti-Protestant policies. Once contact with the Americas was open, the Spanish, French, English, and Dutch increasingly invested in the explorations. Labor systems. Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com.Click to see the original works with their full license. Click the card to flip . The original intent of the system was to Adam Smith . Continuity and Change from 1450 to 1750. The work of harvesting cash crops and mining silver was labor intensive. His defeat of the Inca epitomizes the advantages which the Europeans had over the Amerindians, The last Incan Emperor before the Spanish conquered the Inca, reform movement led by Martin Luther, John Calvin, and others that divided Christianity, German priest and professor who started the Protestant Reformation through his 95 Theses, List of criticisms with the Catholic Church that started the Protestant Reformation, Created a branch of Christianity that centered around the idea of predestination, period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent in response to the Protestant Reformation, group of people that participated in the Catholic Reformation that brought some people back to the Catholic Church, granted tolerance to the Protestants in France in 1598, war between Protestants and Catholics in Germany (broke out in 1618), Civil War in England that resulted in the King of England losing much of his power, new vision of science (developed during 17th and 18th centuries); relied on reason, Polish astronomer who developed a heliocentric theory of the Solar System, Italian astronomer who improved the telescope and supported Copenicus' views on the Solar System, described basic principles of motion and gravity, doctrine that a monarch derives his or her power directly from God, The king of France from 1643-1715. In places like France and England, the people were feudal. Read through the entire project before you begin doing any work. Before 1450, regional trade was all the rage as the Silk Roads, Indian Ocean network, and Trans-Saharan routes exploded with more merchants and goods flowing. However, natives could easily escape. the Americas largely depended on agriculture and utilized existing labor systems, including the Incan mit'a. reduce the abuses of forced labor. As serfs, they were completely tied to the land and sold when the land sold. This was common in early Medeival Europe as well as in Russia until the mid 19th century. Between 1680-1707, the Maratha rebellion continued until they killed the Mughal leader Aurangzeb. Size. system abolished William of Orange was backed by Protestants to overthrow him. If you controlled one of these territories, you were legally allowed to force indigenous people to pay taxes, work for you, or provide other goods or services. Mughal Empire tomb dedicated to a shah's wife, Hindu practice of suicide of widows by jumping on husband's pyre, Finished the process of expelling Mongols - centralized czar's power, Russian nobility, resisted attempts at modernization, Russian ruler who westernized Russia - desired warm water port. These new scientific discoveries and navigation undoubtedly opened up new trade networks across the Atlantic and Pacific, which also led to mass migrations of people (forced and voluntary). s b. For each of these five separate cases, identify the principle(s) of internal control that is violated. In Asia, Muslims were all on top of trade until they gave it away to Europeans. Learn. Indigenous people divided up among Spanish settlers to be Christianized and forced to provide labor for mines and plantations, food production, and textiles. How did issues and tensions emerging from World War I create the anger and violence of $1919$. Coercive Labor Systems - slavery vs. other coercive labor system. Asian merchants continued to trade most goods across Asian maritime networks. Christianity also spread throughout Africa. Learn faster with . CONTINUITIES in global migrations from the 1450-1750 time period. Their population numbers also rapidly decreased with the spread of diseases introduced into the Americas by Europeans. The demand for exploration led to new technological innovations. honor the empire, usually Trading company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants' trade in Asia. The unsuccessful attempt by the British Empire to establish diplomatic relations with the Qing Empire. He oversaw the greatest expansion of the Qing Empire. 1450-1750 Early Modern Period. In West Africa, European merchants and missionaries reached inland to the Kongo and Benin. Became emblematic of the loyalty, sacrifice, persistence, and honor that all good people should preserve in Japan, powerful daimyo of Edo (modern-day Tokyo), named himself shogun in 1603, initiating the most powerful and long-lasting of all Japanese shogunates. The conquistadors claimed and discovered lands in the names of their empires (mostly for Spain) Portuguese were preoccupied with interests in Africa and Asia (trading post empires) Viceroys appointed to administer Brazil. Unit 4: Labor Systems, 1450 - 1750 C. Encomienda Chattel Slavery Russian Serfdom Define the labor system Include the general role/purpose Were there revolts or rebellions associated with it? Meanwhile, the population of forced laborers increased, further expanding the wealth gap. Escaped serfs began to organize as free peasants, especially in the steppes. The most immediate effect on indigenous communities was the massive depopulation caused by disease. The Columbian Exchange also had an enormous effect on the environment. However, it was a process of trial and error, since labor systems saw manyshow more content. This is also known as the. Japan was classified as a gunpowder empire even if they weren't exactly land-based. While Russia remained an agricultural society, the West became very commercially active and developed a strong manufacturing base. Those who could not pay their debts in Europe were often forced into servitude in the Americas to pay back what they owed. Like in the Eastern Atlantic, they focused on sugar cane production. The Portuguese controlled some areas on the Indian Ocean network as they strong armed locals, but merchants continued to trade and migrate. Between 1450 and 1750 there were several examples of states attempting this balancing act. Name:__________________________________________ Date:__________ Period:_______. general Heres a few examples of how states were challenged between 1450-1750: After the British and Dutch pushed the Portuguese out of India, they turned their attention to expanding their role in the African slave trade. Over Encomienda labor, Ch DBQ #3 Evaluate the extent to which states in the period 14501750 practiced religious tolerance, Causation in European Exploration Activity 1, Managing Engaging Learning Environments (D095), Educational Psychology and Development of Children Adolescents (D094), Success Strategies for Online Learning (SNHU107), Medical/Surgical Nursing Concepts (NUR242), Health-Illness Concepts Across the Lifespan I (NUR 1460C), Concepts Of Maternal-Child Nursing And Families (NUR 4130), Legal Issues in Information Security (C 841), Financial Statement Analysis/Business Valuation (ACC345), Maternity and Pediatric Nursing (NUR 204), Professional Application in Service Learning I (LDR-461), Advanced Anatomy & Physiology for Health Professions (NUR 4904), Principles Of Environmental Science (ENV 100), Operating Systems 2 (proctored course) (CS 3307), Comparative Programming Languages (CS 4402), Business Core Capstone: An Integrated Application (D083), A&P II Chapter 21 Circulatory System, Blood Vessels, General Chemistry I - Chapter 1 and 2 Notes, Logica proposicional ejercicios resueltos. Without any bloodshed, William and Mary II pressured James II into exile and took the throne. Modern Key Takeaways AP World History Period 1 (1200-1450) The spread of religion, aided by the increase in trade, often acted as a unifying social force. in debt to continue working on a piece of Americas that was in the process of Labor systems grew and changed in response to the demand for labor and goods. There were two main joint-stock companies. [February 19th, Old Style], 1861) which was Flashcards. New syncretic religions emerged that blended native and colonial traditions. Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church, English Queen who ruled for 44 years and provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity, By the 1500's this was more of a union of territories. This is why the ancient civilizations are so fascinating because they all developed similar structures without knowing about each other. Qing emperor (r. 1662-1722). Because of internal conflict and lack of food, the Maya empire . 1450-1750. What were some reasons why Europe changed socially, and intellectually? New World settlers of European descent born in the New World, people of European and African descent ancestry, middle-level status between Europeans and pure minorities (made up of mezitos and mulattoes), king's representatives in the New World who were given much leeway their ability to rule in the name of Spain or Portugal, system which gave encomenderos, or Spanish settlers, the right to force natives to work, system of forced labor in Peru, used as a basis by the Europeans to create a new forced labor system on the natives, practice of Europeans to essentially sell years of their freedom in exchange for passage to the New World, the dramatic widespread exchange of the animals, plants, culture and human populations (including slaves), communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres (Old World to New World), clockwise network of sea routes between Africa, America, and Europe, the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa were taken to the New World, as part of the Atlantic slave trade. At this time, wealth was measured by how much gold or silver a country had on hand. The second employee receives the merchandise. It started in the 11 th century and peaked between the 15 th and 18 th centuries. woman eaten by crocodile 2021,
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